Saturday, September 1, 2012

Atoms: From Boiling Water to Bombs- The Difference Between Atoms Colliding and Nuclear Fusion

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Do you know the difference between boiling water and atomic bombs? What I mean is, when you place a cool pot of water on your stove on high, it'll reach a rolling boil eventually, right? Just what is "boiling" anyway? Well, it's water, you know this, and it's hot, so you know the basics already. What you probably know too is that the water is actually H20, which is simply 2 hydrogen atoms connected to 1 oxygen atom. These three atoms combined create water. It's simply that there are many types of atoms in the universe, most of which can connect with other atoms to form other substances, such as gasoline, water, metals, minerals, and everything else in the universe. The "stuff" you use every day and the foods you eat are all made of atoms, organic molecules and so on that all connect like puzzle pieces to form different inorganic and organic substances that all differ a little from each other. Don't get hung up on this, you don't have to open your mind too much on this to understand what is written below.
As the following writer puts it so succinctly, "...Atoms [are] particles of elements, substances that cannot be broken down further... Atoms are made up of 3 types of particles:
protons, neutrons and electrons
These particles have different properties. Electrons are tiny, very light particles that have a negative electrical charge (-). Protons are much larger and heavier than electrons and have the opposite charge, protons have a positive charge. Neutrons are large and heavy like protons, however neutrons have no electrical charge. Atoms [are] made up of a combination[s] of these particles, (
proton, neutron, proton,
neutron and 2 orbiting electrons)
1 proton and 1 electron
As you can see the shapes of elements in the universe are all the product of atoms connecting in different ways. The point, then, is that there's not much difference between boiling water and bombs. They are both the result of unique atoms being heated and colliding with other atoms and splitting apart, which releases energy. However, the many atoms in bombs simply collide much hotter and faster and are sometimes split instead of connected, or are fused together even, resulting not in boiling water but in explosions and implosions. Now the secret to atomic processes is their temperature and speed. In fact, high speed means the atoms are hotter, so temperature comes first, resulting in greater speed. And we all know that heat is also called kinetic energy and causes atoms to become more energetic, like when you boil water, those water atoms move much more when heated more and more until they are bubbling in the pot. The water's atom collisions greatly multiply. Same effect for all atoms, even atoms in stars, but some atoms are explosive in nature, since they contain (and thus release) far more energy than heated H20 (water). To elaborate some more, it is a fact that....
Ineffective collisions
"bounce" away
"Collisions that lead to "products" are called effective collisions,
[where 2 or more separate atoms collide and combine
electrons, resulting in 2 new, different atoms]. An effective
collision must happen with a great enough speed, energy and
force to break bonds in the colliding molecules. The higher
temperatures mean higher velocities. This means there
will be less time between collisions. The frequency of
collisions will increase. The increased number of collisions
and the greater violence of collisions results in more
effective collisions. The rate for the reaction increases.
Reaction rates are roughly doubled when the temperature increases
by 10 degrees Kelvin,"
Effective collision. Red and blue
atoms connect and separate,
creating 2 new different atoms
The atoms collide more often in less time as they become hotter, since heat increases their speed, which reduces the time it takes for one atom to hit another and then another, and so on until thousands of atoms are colliding each second, which increases the total amount of effective collisions. This is why I often use the word violent to describe the release of energy and fusion and collision processes, since so much heat and force is produced even in a pot of boiling water. The pot of water is only water, though, and there are no effective collisions since there are only atoms that are already combined
(water colliding with water). You could add something to the water and see what happens, but 180 degrees is simply not hot enough to cause effective collisions.
Now then, speed is the byproduct of temperature, so it means that the atoms are already in a violent state, and that violent state is simply getting much more violent as more speed is built up and more collisions occur, releasing more "atomic" energy, which could range from boiling water to bombs in simplistic terminology, since all energy is atomic in nature! However, the atomic energy you want to hear about is thusly; it is when volatile atoms collide at great speeds that they seem to experience fusion, since they become superheated, which greatly increases the speed even more and increases the chances for effective collisions. And because speed is a form of kinetic energy, like your pot of boiling water, increasing the speed is like adding more energy into the mix, and although this energy is indirect, the results are terribly direct. Speed exacerbates these collisions! In atoms that already contain large amounts of energy, this fusion process takes place more violently when the speed is extreme.
This atomic fusion releases absurd amounts of destructive force for such tiny atoms, like the atom bomb which crushed Hiroshima, instantly killing nearly a million people and reducing the entire city is a radiation-ridden pile of debris and ash. This is why supernovas are so devastating, since this explosive process takes place at 10% light speed (71 million mph). Supernovas release more energy in a 3 to 8 hours than our Sun has for its entire 4,500,000,000 (4.5 billion) year life! Wow. I'm posting an article on Neutron stars to demonstrate the sheer power of stars compared to Earth's largest and most destructive bombs ever made or conceived of. The numbers are staggering, and shows how Earth and humanity aren't even ants in the universe.
There is another article on antimatter called "Force of Space Propulsion," which is another form of destructive energy that humans try to use for atomic energy purposes, like for starship travel or more bombs. As a teaser, just 2.2 lbs. of antimatter is much more destructive in both blast and yield in megatons of force than the Tsar Bomba, a 60,000 lbs. bomb, the most powerful bomb ever detonated on Earth, and more energy than two side by side hurricanes raging for over a 12 hour period! Enjoy!

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