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This article shows all the large number names as well as how to write and understand scientific notation, which is used constantly in astronomy due to massive numbers.
Names for large numbersScientific notation  English name  

10^{0}  One  1 
10^{1}  Ten  10 
10^{2}  Hundred  100 
10^{3}  Thousand  1,000 
10^{4}  Ten Thousand  10,000 
10^{5}  Hundred Thousand  100,000 
10^{6}  Million  1,000,000 
10^{9}  Billion  1,000,000,000 
10^{12}  Trillion  1,000,000,000,000 
10^{15}  Quadrillion  1,000,000,000,000,000 
10^{18}  Quintillion  1,000,000,000,000,000,000 
10^{21}  Sextillion  1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 
10^{24}  Septillion  1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 
10^{27}  Octillion  1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 
10^{30}  Nonillion  1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 
10^{33}  Decillion  1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 
10^{36}  Undecillion  1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 
10^{39}  Duodecillion  1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 
10^{42}  Tredecillion  1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 
10^{45}  Quattuordecillion  1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 
10^{48}  Quindecillion  1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 
10^{51}  Sexdecillion  1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 
10^{54}  Septdecillion  1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 
10^{57}  Octodecillion  1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 
10^{60}  Novemdecillion  1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 
10^{63}  Vigintillion  1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 
Other large numbers (color coded for ease of reading)
10^{100  }Googol  1 followed by 100 zeroes
10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
10^{303  }Centillion  1 followed by 303 zeroes
1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
10^{Googol  }Googolplex  10^{(10100)} could not write these zeroes on a quadrillion books in size 8 font, literally
10^{Googolplex}   Googolplexplex  (10^{10^10^100}) impossble to fit the zeroes in entire universe, literally 
10^{10000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000}
Why bother to understand to numbers? Well, there are some good reasons below. Check out the definition below and why it just seems so empty, followed by some good illustrations of how the word "Universe" would really feel like to a space traveler.
 UNIVERSEall matter and energy in space: the totality of all matter and energy that exists in the vastness of space, whether known to human beings or not

Big numbers are a pain to write, astronomers use Scientific Notation constantly. It is truly easy, and contrary to my blogs, I am surprisingly bad with math. My blog contains basic math, even though the numbers are massive.

TRAINING! HOW TO SOLVE SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
Just what the hell is 1×10^{6 }? It's very simple, just think of 1 + 6 zeroes, so that's 1,000,000. See the "6" exponent? Write down that many zeroes
000 000
See the "1" on the left? Write a 1 to the left of the zeroes
1 000 000
Voila. You solved it! One Million! And yes, scientific notation is always this easy to do. If you plug the notation into a calculator it will simply come up as 1,000,000 too.
NOW TRY THIS
Take 1.22×10^{6 }and follow the below instructions:
1) Write down all the numbers to the left of the decimal
1
2) 10^{6} means 6 zeroes, so write down the six zeroes
1 000 000
3) Almost done now! On the 1.22 the ".22" counts as two zeroes, so write the 22 over top of the leftmost two zeroes, which leaves four zeroes behind the it:
1 220 000
4) Now add commas starting with the rightmost numbers
1,220,000 = 1.22×10^{6 }
Eventually you'll memorize what the exponents mean and no actual solving will be required. For instance, when you see 10^{6}1 you will eventually just think 1,000,000, and anything × it is simply "" times one million.
NOW TRY THIS
SOLVE 10.987654×10^{12} using the same procedures above. Don't let the numbers confuse you:
1) Write down all the numbers to the left of the decimal
10
2) 10^{12} means 12 zero digits, so write down the 12 zeroes
10 000 000 000 000
3) Write the 987 654 over top of the leftmost zeroes
10 987 654 000 000
4) Now add commas starting with the rightmost numbers
10,987,654,000,000 = 10.987654×10^{13}
5) Now double check your numbers by counting the 13 numbers after the 1 (the leftmost digit does not count as a zero, so there should be 13 digits. 12 of which are considered zeroes counted in the exponent.
**Keep in mind***
1×10^{6} is 1 000 000
10×10^{5} is 1 000 000
1000×10^{3} is 1 000 000
10 000×10^{2} is 1 000 000
100 000×10^{1} is 1 000 000
Basically, the leftmost number can take away from the exponent by taking zeroes from the right and putting them on the left, but what is the point? It makes more sense to shorten the number to single digits. The 1×10^{6} makes more sense to write than the 10×1000^{3} !! It's shorter and more concise. In fact, the whole reason scientific notation exists is simply to shorten numbers as much as possible.

NOW TRY IT WITH DECIMALS
For numbers less than 1 (decimals) such as 0.1, the steps above are still followed, but can seem different, but it's really all the same. Don't be intimidated.
(Some of this is in reverse, so don't let yourself be intimidated!)
Take 5.1×10^{4 }and follow the below instructions:
1) Write down all the numbers to the left of the decimal
5
2) 10^{4} means 4 zeroes, so write down the four zeroes
0000 5
3) Almost done now! On the 5.1 the "5" counts as a zero, so write the 51 over top of the rightmost zero, which leaves three zeroes in front of it:
00051
4) Now add the decimal point to the far left
.00051
Voila! See that was easy.
Other equations will have a decimal×whole number like below, these you have to actually multiply until you become more familiar with rearranging the digits:
FOR EXAMPLE
0.0005×10^{2 }is "five tenthousandths"10^{2 } =100 so
100×0.0005
=0.05 "five onehundredths." The ×100 forced the 5 over by one onehundredth

The 10^{2} simply causes the decimal to become bigger, forcing the "5" over toward the left. When a decimal gets BIGGER it moves closer to the decimal point off to the left until it passes it, becoming a whole number. So 0.05 is 100× larger than 0.0005

Count in your head all the digits representing each number:
0.0005= 0 tens, 0 hundreds, 0 thousands, 5 ten thousands
and ×100 means the 5 will move to the left two decimal places, where ×1000 would move the 5 three spaces, and ×10,000 would cause the 5 to become a whole number, 5.0. Since it is five tenthousandths, it would need to be multiplied by 10,000 to become a whole number.

0.5 needs ×10 to become a 5
0.05 needs ×100 to become a 5
0.005 needs ×1,000 to become a 5
0.0005 needs ×10,000 to become a 5
0.00005 needs ×100,000 to become a 5
And so on and so on. You'll get it eventually. It's muscle memory, not smarts.

Other equations may also seem confusing because they may contain a huge numbers multiplied by a decimal and still come up as a whole number. These actually work as percentiles, where:
1,000,000,000×0.05 is simply 5% of One Billion, = 50,000,000 (fifty million)

0.0000000015468×10^{21} is massive enough that it will go from a tiny number to a massive whole number
10^{21} = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
×0.0000000015468
= 1,546,800,000,000 (1.5468 trillion)
Now you're a mathematician! Congrats!
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